Currently there are approximately 1,  artificial satellites orbiting the Earth. Looking at the "anatomy" of a typical satellite, one discovers two modules.
Low Earth orbit is any orbit below 2, km. An elliptic orbit where the perigee is at the altitude of a Low Earth orbit LEO and the apogee at the altitude of a geosynchronous orbit. A synonym for graveyard orbit. This was last updated in October Continue Reading About geostationary satellite.
Useful for image taking satellites because shadows will be nearly the same on every pass. The requirement to space these satellites apart to avoid harmful radio-frequency interference during operations means that there are a limited number of orbital "slots" available, and thus only a limited number of satellites can be operated in geostationary orbit.
List of orbits Various earth orbits to scale; cyan represents low earth orbit, yellow represents medium earth orbit, the black dashed line represents geosynchronous orbit, the green dash-dot line the orbit of Global Positioning System GPS satellites, and the red dotted line the orbit of the International Space Station ISS.
The transponders and other onboard systems generally outlive the thruster fuel and, by stopping N—S station keeping, some satellites can continue to be used in inclined orbits where the orbital track appears to follow a figure-eight loop centred on the equator  or else be elevated to a "graveyard" disposal orbit.
Such a satellite spends most of its time over two designated areas of the planet specifically Russia and the United States. Any geostationary object placed between the equilibrium points would without any action be slowly accelerated towards the stable equilibrium position, causing a periodic longitude variation.
Therefore, it has an inclination of or very close to 90 degrees. A LEO satellite system allows the use of simple, non-directional antennas, offers reduced latency, and does not suffer from solar fade. The first satellite, Sputnik 1was put into orbit around Earth and was therefore in geocentric orbit.
In recent years, low earth orbit LEO satellite systems have become popular. A nearly polar orbit that passes the equator at the same local time on every pass. In our Solar Systemall planets, cometsand asteroids are in such orbits, as are many artificial satellites and pieces of space debris.
A geostationary satellite can be accessed using a directional antenna, usually a small dish, aimed at the spot in the sky where the satellite appears to hover. An orbit around the Sun. An orbit that moves a spacecraft from one approximately circular orbit, usually the orbit of a planet, to another, using two engine impulses.
The box is small, but it limits the sharpness of the directional pattern, and therefore the power gain, that earth-based antennas can be designed to have. Second, there is a dramatic increase in background EM noise when the satellite comes near the sun as observed from a receiving station on the surface, because the sun is a powerful source of EM energy.
This equates to an orbital velocity of 3. These orbits occur at a radius of 24, Gm 0. Hall-effect thrusterswhich are currently in use, have the potential to prolong the service life of a satellite by providing high-efficiency electric propulsion.
End of life[ edit ] When satellites reach the end of their mission this normally occurs within 3 or 4 years after launchsatellite operators have the option of de-orbiting the satellite, leaving the satellite in its current orbit or moving the satellite to a graveyard orbit.
Solar wind and radiation pressure also exert small forces on satellites; over time, these cause them to slowly drift away from their prescribed orbits. Pseudo-orbit classifications[ edit ] Horseshoe orbit: Limitations to usable life of geostationary satellites[ edit ] When they run out of thruster fuel, the satellites are at the end of their service life, as they are no longer able to stay in their allocated orbital position.
A geostationary satellite is an earth-orbiting satelliteplaced at an altitude of approximately 35, kilometers 22, miles directly over the equator, that revolves in the same direction the earth rotates west to east. Moons by contrast are not in a heliocentric orbit but rather orbit their parent planet.
Polar sun synchronous orbit: Receiving uplinked radio signals from earth satellite transmission stations antennas. Satellites will drift east.
Also known as an intermediate circular orbit. Orbit allocation[ edit ] Satellites in geostationary orbit must all occupy a single ring above the equator.
First, because the orbital zone is an extremely narrow ring in the plane of the equator, the number of satellites that can be maintained in geostationary orbits without mutual conflict or even collision is limited.A geostationary satellite travels from west to east over the equator.
It moves in the same direction and at the same rate Earth is spinning. From Earth, a geostationary satellite looks like it is standing still because it is always above the same location in relation to Earth.
NS M1D2 Assignment: Geostationary Operational Satellite (Essay Sample) Geostationary Operational Satellite Name: Institution: Date: Question 1 b: Visible Satellite Images We are an established and reputable company, with over 10 years in the essay business.
3, The tools you need to write a quality essay or term paper; Saved Essays. You Have Not Saved Any Essays. Topics in this paper. Satellite; The first true geostationary weather satellite was known as Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) I. Today's Geostationary Operational Satellites Since the launch of SMS I, thirteen more 4/4(2).
Also, it is very easy to transmit a carrier radio signal to a geostationary satellite and thus interfere with the legitimate uses of the satellite's transponder. It is common for Earth stations to transmit at the wrong time or on the wrong frequency in commercial satellite space, and dual-illuminate the.
Essay about Artificial Satellites Artificial Satellites is a journal of planetary geodesy, affiliated to the Space These types of communications typically need a satellite in geostationary orbit.
Today geostationary satellites are used to provide voice. A geostationary satellite is an earth-orbiting satellite, placed at an altitude of approximately 35, kilometers (22, miles) directly over the equator, that revolves in the same direction the earth rotates (west to east).
At this altitude, one orbit takes 24 hours, the same length of time as.Download